International lamb exports are dominated by Australia and New Zealand. The largest net importers are France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Relative exchange rates between countries, trade barriers and federal support to sheep and lamb industries, as well as sheep-borne diseases are key trade issues that can shape trade flows. It is anticipated that international sheep and lamb marketing will grow as demand in key net importing countries such as the United States increases. The U.S. sheep industry is likely to grow in coming years, but consumption is likely to continue to outpace U.S. production. In mid-2002, the American Lamb Board began the first national check-off program in the sheep industry funded by assessments on sales of sheep and lambs to help promote lamb demand.

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