Variation in animals is controlled, in part, by genetics. Effects of genes and gene combinations influence how genetic tools are used to improve efficiency of production. Additive effects those that provide value to individual genes contribute to the effectiveness of selection. However, dominance effects those that result from certain gene combinations that influence performance over and above the additive effects of the genes contribute to the concepts of inbreeding depression and heterosis and, thus, to the use of inbreeding and crossbreeding.

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