Although reproductive functions of male farm animals are similar in most species, there is much variation among species. Some characteristics that vary among species are size of testes, number of sperm produced each day, age at puberty, volume of semen, and duration of ejaculation. However, in all farm animals, normal testicular temperature is several degrees cooler than body temperature and this temperature gradient is essential for production of fertile sperm. Increases in body and testicular temperature, due to health problems or heat stress, result in reduced fertility or sterility. The duration of altered fertility is variable among species and is the result of the time required for sperm cell production and maturation.

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