Flow kinetics of the digesta fluid phase can be reliably determined using EDTA complexes of Cr or Co. A number of solid external markers have been utilized with variable success in animal nutrition research. Mordanting fiber with heavy metals can potentially affect digestion and flow characteristics of the labeled material. When properly used, rare earth elements are the particulate marker of choice. Intrinsic labeling of forage plant cell walls with stable isotopes, particularly 15N, provides the 7. advantage of being unique to a given meal without the negative impact on particle density and digestion associated with the most common external markers.

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