Deficiency and Toxicity Symptoms

Deficiency and toxicity symptoms of the vitamins in humans and animals have been reviewed.[7,8,13,14] Vitamins with the highest potential for toxicity are vitamins A and D, and choline as choline chloride. In each case, increasing the amount to about 10 times the requirement may produce toxicity symptoms, whereas vitamin E is tolerated at levels up to 100 times the requirement.[8] Niacin, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid are tolerated at dietary levels of 10 to 20 times the requirement. Vitamin K, vitamin C, thiamine, and folic acid are tolerated at extremely high levels (>1000 times the requirement).[9]

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