Depths

An inexpensive ruler is used to measure external fat thickness as well as length and width of muscles and has been used extensively to make linear measurements of livestock and their carcasses. For livestock, the back-fat probe was one of the first methods used.[3] Recently, more sophisticated techniques have been developed such as noninvasive real-time ultrasound to determine external fat and muscle depth on livestock and invasive optical light reflectance probes on carcasses.[1]

Other Linear Measurements

Lengths, widths, and circumferences are taken on livestock and carcasses using anatomically identified reference locations. Measurements include hip or shoulder height, heart girth circumference, length or circumference of cannon bone, hind saddle length, and carcass length. Most of these are related to weight and will provide some insight into variations of skeletal size, but usually they are

Bovine

SPECIES

Ovine

Pore

Skin I"

SLAUGHTER METHOD FLEECE LongC

HORNS & TAIL G.I. CONTENT (FILL) CARCASS TEMPERATURE

fuii r

PREGNANCY GROWTH STAGE MUSCLING FATNESS

Lactating

Term fz

Chilled f"

I trimesters

Ectomorph f"

Dehair Short

Clean, Dry ^ Polled, Bobbed

Newborn

_Old Market

Mesomorph poubled

ZESS^Muscled iil Obese

Some traits are interrelated such as species, slaughter method and fleece.

Condemnations (due to bruising, disease, contamination, etc.) and weighing errors are not included but could change yields slightly to excessively.

Fig. 2 Effects of various traits on dressing percentage.

FACTORS INFLUENCING BOVINE COMPOSITION

FACTORS INFLUENCING BOVINE COMPOSITION

GROWTH FATNESS MUSCLING G.I. FILL

^ BIRTH ADULT THIN FAT LOW HIGH EMPTY FULL

Fig. 3 Factors influencing bovine composition.

GROWTH FATNESS MUSCLING G.I. FILL

^ BIRTH ADULT THIN FAT LOW HIGH EMPTY FULL

Fig. 3 Factors influencing bovine composition.

not related directly to composition. Of all linear measurements, fat depth in combination with weight contributes most significantly to the prediction of lean body mass.[4]

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