Diet Formulation

Diet formulation is critical because characteristics of manure reflect diet roughage level.[12] As digestibility

FULL SUN

SHADE

FULL SUN

SHADE

FULL SUN

SHADE

FULL SUN

SHADE

208.5

209.0

211.5

208.5

209.0

209.5 210.0 210.5 Julian Date, 1999

211.0

211.5

Temperature-Humidity Index

- Body Temperature

- Respiration Rate

Fig. 1 Respiration rate and body temperature responses of a steer provided with no shade (days 208 and 210) during a heat wave near Columbia, Missouri. (From Ref. 14.)

decreases, the volume of generated manure increases as much as 100%. Furthermore, moisture content and handling characteristics are affected. Manure from cattle fed high-roughage diets is more dry and bulky than from high-concentrate diets.[13] Minimizing manure volume and higher moisture content is optimal for slatted floors, while drier manure is better suited to bedded systems. This author helped move a drag the full

Fig. 2 Areas of the mainland United States having selected categories of yearly hours above 29.4°C (Ref. 4; taken from Ref. 17). Nonshaded sections of the map indicate no significant yearly benefit of providing shade within the feedyard if less than 500 hours per year of temperatures above 29.4°C. The dark areas represent locations expected to experience annual benefits from shaded feedlots with an expected 750 hours of temperatures above 29.4°C. (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

Fig. 2 Areas of the mainland United States having selected categories of yearly hours above 29.4°C (Ref. 4; taken from Ref. 17). Nonshaded sections of the map indicate no significant yearly benefit of providing shade within the feedyard if less than 500 hours per year of temperatures above 29.4°C. The dark areas represent locations expected to experience annual benefits from shaded feedlots with an expected 750 hours of temperatures above 29.4°C. (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

distance of the barn when a five-day accumulation of manure directly behind/beneath the feedbunk was too dry (high-roughage diet) for the drag to handle. That same drag was prone to freezing during Nebraska winters. Drags designed for heated dairy barns may not be appropriate pit cleaners.

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