Dietary Manipulation Of Fatty Acid Profile And Nutrient Content Of Animal Products

Manipulation of the fatty acid profile of body lipid and of vitamin and mineral content in slaughter animals should be considered, as it influences storage and sensory properties of animal products. It also provides a means to supply fatty acids and nutrients in animal products that are beneficial to human health.

Deposition

Body protein

Deposition

Body protein

Energy intake

Fig. 2 Schematic representation of the relationship between energy intake and accretion of body protein and body lipid in growing animals. (From Refs. 3,6,7.)

Energy intake

Fig. 2 Schematic representation of the relationship between energy intake and accretion of body protein and body lipid in growing animals. (From Refs. 3,6,7.)

Table 1 Fatty acid composition (% of deposited body lipid) in female broiler chickens fed diets containing 10% from different sources between 8 and 42 days of agea

Dietary fat source

None

Olive

Sunflower

Linseed

(control)

Tallow

oil

oil

oil

C16:0

25.9

23.1

17.0

10.7

10.9

C16:1 n 7

7.41

5.42

1.99

0.67

1.06

C18:0

6.86

8.28

4.77

4.12

4.52

C18:1 n 9

31.8

39.4

55.2

18.6

18.2

C18:1 n 7

2.27

2.34

2.10

0.49

0.77

C18:2 n 6

20.0

13.6

14.9

61.9

17.8

C18:3 n 6

0.52

0.16

0.17

0.35

0.05

C18:3 n 3

1.47

1.39

1.22

0.99

43.0

aValues represent means from 10 individual chickens. (From Ref. 8.)

aValues represent means from 10 individual chickens. (From Ref. 8.)

Table 2 Effect of dietary dosage and duration of supplemental vitamin E on tissue content of a tocopherol in cattlea

Tissue content, mg/g fresh tissue

Tissue content, mg/g fresh tissue

Table 2 Effect of dietary dosage and duration of supplemental vitamin E on tissue content of a tocopherol in cattlea

Dosage, IU/d

Duration, d

Liver

Subcutaneous fat

Gluteus medius muscle

Longissimus muscle

0

38 266

2.9

2.7

1.8

1.4

360

211 252

12.0

9.5

5.3

4.1

1280

211 252

25.2

19.6

8.6

6.8

3560

196 266

31.2

22.5

7.6

aValues represent observations obtained in several studies. (From Ref. 9.)

aValues represent observations obtained in several studies. (From Ref. 9.)

Fatty acids incorporated into body lipid can either be synthesized de novo by the animal (largely palmitic, C16:0; stearic, C18:0; and oleic acid, C18:1 n-9) or derived directly from dietary fat. Because animals preferentially use dietary fatty acids for the synthesis of body lipids, manipulation of the content and fatty acid composition of dietary fat represents a means to influence the fatty acid composition of body fat.[8] This applies in particular to monogastric animals. Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals can alter the dietary fatty acid profile before it is absorbed. The high content of oleic (C18:1 n-9), linoleic (C18:2 n-6), and linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3) content in olive oil, sunflower oil, and linseed oil, respectively, is reflected in the high content of these fatty acids in body lipid when these fat sources are fed to broiler chickens (Table 1).

A nutrient whose level in the various tissues is manipulated easily by changing dietary intake is vitamin E (Table 2).[5] An increased level of tocopherol provides protection of lipid and myoglobin oxidation during harvesting and storage of fresh meat products, and thus extends the stability of lipid and color in these animal products.

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