Egg Products From Breaking Operations

Egg-breaking operations were established in order to open an outlet for surplus eggs, small eggs, cracked eggs, and dirty eggs and to provide relatively long shelf life products for bakers and confectioners who were the main users until World War II (WWII). Today, the entire production of some farms is fully directed to egg breaking. In other egg farms, most of the medium eggs are also directed to breaking, and larger eggs are sent to the fresh egg market. Prior to 1940, breaking operations accounted for 5 6% of U.S. egg production. They were more common in the Midwest where mainly frozen products were produced. During and after WWII, large quantities of dry products were needed to feed the troops and for emergency feeding programs for European populations. Twelve large drying facilities were erected in the Midwest and operated around the clock. Fast egg-breaking machines were developed to meet the volumes of production needed. Egg-breaking production jumped to 9.0% in 1960, 24.4% in 1992, and stabilized around 30% in 2003.

Retail outlets generally have a small number of egg products, but many food products that contain eggs. Typical retail food products are mayonnaise, salad dressing, pasta, noodles, quiches, bakery products, and eggnog. Other egg products such as deviled eggs, Scott eggs, frozen omelets, egg patties, and scrambled eggs are prepared mainly for fast food and institutional feeding establishments, catering, hotels, and restaurants. Products such as noncholesterol egg substitutes and liquid scrambled egg mix are made for both retail and institutional markets.

Egg products are classified into four groups according to the American Egg Board Guidelines.[2]

1. Frozen egg products

2. Refrigerated egg products

Table 1 Commonly available chilled, frozen, and dry forms of further processed egg products

Liquid products

Dry products

Pasteurized whole eggs

White flaked egg whites


Golden flaked egg whites

Ultrapasteurized whole eggs

Flaked egg whites



Whole eggs with salt

Flaked egg whites

Whole eggs with corn syrup


Whole eggs with sugar

Nonwhipping spray

Whole eggs with added yolks

dried egg whites

Whole eggs with added yolks

Whipping spray

and corn syrup

dried egg whites

Blends of yolks and whites

Neutral pH spray

Blends of yolks and whites

dried egg whites

and salt

Egg whites for foaming

Blends of yolks and whites

Instant egg whites

and sugar or corn syrup

with sugar

Egg yolk

Egg yolks with salt

Egg yolks with sugar

Egg whites

Whole eggs with corn syrup

Whole eggs with added yolk

and corn syrup

Whole eggs with corn syrup

Whole eggs with added whites

freezing techniques for products containing cooked white (deviled eggs or egg logs) include individual quick freezing at very low temperatures (to — 240°F).

Defrosting of frozen eggs is inflexible and inconvenient; eggs may be defrosted at 35°C in approved metal tanks within 40 to 48 h. If defrosted at higher temperatures (up to 50°F), the time cannot exceed 24 h. The long defrosting period is one of the main drawbacks for frozen egg utilization in industrial production.

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