The foaming capability of egg albumen is the fundamental characteristic of this product group. They are used mainly in baked products prepared at 350 400oF or in foamy drinks and desserts. They are available commercially in ready-to-cook or ready-to-eat forms.
1. Angel cake is made from egg whites, flour, and sugar. The egg whites and sugar are beaten until solidified and the flour is then added. The mixture is poured into a baking pan. No leavening agents are used. This cake is also used as a test model for measuring foam strength in relation to cake volume.
2. Confectionery: The first egg confectionery had to wait until sugar was brought from the New World. In 1550, marzipan was developed in Milan, Italy by beating egg whites with sugar. Meringues were invented in France and were widely distributed after Luis XIV made it a royal dish. Nougats (egg whites, gelatin, vegetable oils, and dried coconut and other fruit), marshmallows, and other similar products are commercially available. The incredible emulsification and water-holding capabilities of the egg yolk were well used in chocolate-type confections in earlier times; however, cheaper soy phospholipids and leuiting thin replaced most of the eggs in chocolate confections. Eggs are still used in some specialty products such as chocolate truffles.
3. Meringues are made with aerated egg whites with finely ground sugar.
4. Souffles are made from egg yolks and thick white sauce (Bechamel) made from flour, butter, milk, or cream. Various seasoned purees of vegetables, meats, or seafood are added together with aerated egg whites, which provide the desired volume and texture. The mix is baked in individual cups and the baking is finished when the product rises above the rim.
5. Egg substitutes are made in order to provide liquid egg without cholesterol. They are made mainly from egg whites, so the amount of fat is also very low. They are available in retail and institutional packages in frozen or chilled form (Fig. 7).
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