Egg Yolkbased Products

Products such as mayonnaise, sauces, and salad dressings are commercially produced in very large volumes. A large number of variations are regionally produced as specialty items.

1. Mayonnaise is made by mixing yolks with salt, dry mustard, and lemon juices (or vinegar) before whisking or blending in oil in a ratio of 1:7 (yolk mixture:oil) to make a stable emulsion (Fig. 5). Due to Salmonella enteritis (SE), a possible food poisoning threat, the egg yolks are pasteurized or cooked before utilization. However, when mayonnaise is made at home or in specialty restaurants, no cooking is done to obtain superior flavor. Acidifying with lemon juice just reduces the risk. Aioli is the French version (from Provance) of mayonnaise, in which garlic and extra virgin olive oils are used. Egg cooking sauces, salad dressings, dips, and spreads are variations of mayonnaise and are made under the same principles. Egg-containing sauces, salad dressings, dips, and spreads

Fig. 6 Frozen quiches.
Fig. 7 Chilled egg substitute made from egg whites.

are variations of mayonnaise and are made under the same principles.

2. Custards are known from Roman times. This product group is sweet and moist. The tender gel is made from egg yolks, sugar, milk or cream, and flavors such as vanilla, chocolate, or fruit. The most famous custards, the French creme caramel and the Spanish flan, are available in many countries in restaurant and retail. Quiches are unsweetened baked custard pies with filling made from egg yolks, eggs, milk, and cheese (Fig. 6). The most famous one, quiche Lorraine, came from Alsace in northeastern France.

3. Ice cream: Eggs have limited use in ice cream and they are used mainly in the French vanilla ice cream and chocolate ice creams, which are commercially available in large volume. Many low-volume specialty ice creams also use eggs.

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