Ejaculation

Movement of sperm cells from the cauda of the epididymis to the reproductive tract of the female during mating or collection of semen for artificial insemination involves an integrated sequence of events. The penis is erected, sperm and secretions from the accessory glands are moved into the ejaculatory duct, and ejaculation moves semen to the exterior of the penis. The duration of

Table 2

Composition of semen and fertility of farm animals

Sperm concentration

Duration of

Pregnancy rates with

Species

Volume (ml)

(109/ml)

ejaculation

natural mating (%)

Boar

250

0.2

minutes

85 95

Ram

1

3.0

< second

80 90

Bull, beef

5

1.0

< second

65 75

Stallion

60

0.15

minutes

40 75

Rabbit

1

0.2

< second

80 90

Dog

4

0.2

minutes

ejaculation varies with species: from a fraction of a second for bulls and rams, to several minutes for boars (Table 2). Stallions, rams, and bulls produce 5 to 10 billion sperm per day and daily sperm production of boars is about 16 billion sperm.

The volume of semen produced in an ejaculum varies with size and function of accessory glands. The average volume of an ejaculum from a bull is 5 ml, whereas boars produce 250 ml.

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