The processing of cereal grains for human consumption results in the largest amount of by-products available for the feeding of livestock and poultry. Nearly 10% of the corn grown in the United States is processed for the production of starch, sugar (syrup), oil, grits, meal, hominy, and breakfast foods. The by-products—primary corn gluten feed and hominy feed—are fed to livestock. In the milling of wheat for flour, about 28% of the wheat is feed by-product, primarily wheat middlings. Other byproducts include wet and dried brewers grains from the brewing industry, distillers dried grains from the distillation industry, molasses from sugar production, wet and dry citrus pulp from citrus juice processing, soyhulls from soybean processing, dried bakery waste from the baking industry, and so on.
Most of the wheat grown worldwide is for human consumption. However, some wheat is fed to livestock and poultry, in particular when prices are low. In addition, off-grade wheat is typically fed. As such, about 20% of the crop is fed to livestock and poultry. Some by-products, such as whole cottonseed, a by-product of cotton ginning, can be a good source of both energy and protein for livestock feeding.
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