Artificial insemination requires that humans, in lieu of conspecific males, detect estrus in females. However, developing techniques to regulate timing of ovulation and artificial insemination might eliminate the need for managers to detect estrus in females in the near future. Nevertheless, understanding the ethology and physiology of female sexual and social behavior can improve female fertility, health, and welfare. Attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity are three components of female sexual behavior that have been defined. Attractivity refers to the stimulus value of the female. It is measured by observing the behaviors performed by the male that are directed toward the female. Proceptivity includes behaviors performed by the female that bring the male into closer proximity and maintain his proximity and sexual motivation in order for mating to occur. Finally, receptivity describes the behaviors and postures exhibited by a female that allow successful intromission and intravaginal ejaculation to occur. Production demands and housing systems can interfere with the expression of female reproductive behavior. Studies aimed at learning how physiological and environmental signals are integrated could improve reproductive performance.1-10-1
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