Genotype x Environment Interaction

The phenotypic model described earlier includes independent genetic and environmental effects. It has also been shown that genotype and environment may interact.1-6-1 Relative to each other, genotypes may respond differently in different environments. The classic example in large farm animals involves the fact that Brahman cattle are adapted to warm, humid climates, whereas breeds such as Hereford or Angus are adapted to more temperate climates. Those adaptations would lead the British breeds to perform better than the Brahman in the Midwest, and the Brahman would be expected to perform better in the Gulf Coast area. Genotype interactions may be important, not only in breed utilization for different climates, but also in (inter)national genetic evaluation programs. There may be reason to develop different ranking of sires to be used in different regions or countries.

may cause the actual heterosis to be larger or smaller than expected due simply to heterozygocity.

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