Curved, single-file races (chutes) work efficiently because they take advantage of the grazing animal's natural tendency to move back to where they came from. Large ranches, feedlots, meat plants, and sheep operations have used curved chute systems for years. To help keep animals calmer and to facilitate movement through the facility, the following areas should have solid fences to block vision: the single-file chute (race); the restraining device for holding the animal (squeeze chute); and the crowd pen, crowd gate, and truck loading ramp. Solid sides are especially important for extensively reared animals with a large flight zone. If an animal is completely tame and can be led with a halter, the use of solid sides is less important. Figure 3 illustrates a well-designed curved, single-file chute with solid sides.
Both mammals and poultry will be less stressed if they are restrained in a comfortable, upright position. Inverting either mammals or birds into an upside down position
is very stressful. In all species, an inverted animal will attempt to right itself by raising its head.
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