Immune Cell Subsets And Markers

Table 1 outlines the differences between the innate and the adaptive, or acquired, immune response. Figure 1 shows some of the blood cell subsets involved in immune responses. Immune cell subsets are designated by their cluster of differentiation (CD) antigen markers, recognized by monoclonal antibodies (e.g., CD4+ T helper cells, CD25+ activation antigen, CD1+ dendritic cells, CD172+ macrophages).a T cells express the CD3 antigen and the T cell receptor (TCR). B cells produce immunoglobulins (Igs); some express them on their surface as part of the B cell receptor (BCR). The variant antigen-binding T and B cell receptors the TCR and Ig are complex; in the genome they are encoded as sets of gene segments coding for variable and constant regions.[2,3] To have an active TCR or Ig expressed, aThe Veterinary Immunology Committee of International Union of Immunological Societies (VIC IUIS) maintains a series of websites for immune reagent information. (Pig website: http://eis.bris.ac.uk/~lvkh/ welpig.htm; cattle: www.iah.bbsrc.ac.uk/leucocyte/bovsite.html; horses: www.vetmed.wisc.edu/research/eirh; other websites are under develop ment.) The Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA8) Animal Homologues Workshop (www.hlda8.org) is underway to expand the CD markers and species tested for cross reaction of anti human CD markers on other species cells.

multiple gene rearrangements must take place in each individual cell. Each TCR has two antigen-binding polypeptides the TCR alpha and beta or gamma and delta gene complexes. The y8TCR+ T cells and aßTCR+ T cells are active in innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively. Each Ig also has four antigen-binding polypeptides, two heavy and two light chains.[4]b There are different Ig isotypes defined by their heavy chains (e.g., IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE, and multiple IgG isotypes) on B cells or in blood and mucosal secretions. The diversity of TCR and Ig expression adds to immune diversity, enabling the acquired immune system to respond to a broad array of immune molecules.

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