Tissue transplants and grafting with animal tissues are routine human treatment regimes. Of particular note are the use of skins for initial treatment of burn patients and arteries, heart values, bone cartilage, and bone fragments, which are used as substitutes for diseased or damaged human tissue parts. In many of these treatment areas, there are no synthetic products that function or perform equally well. Historically, animal by-products have been used for these pharmaceutical and biological medical treatments for centuries. Rather crude applications based primarily on folklore preceded the extensive medical research and technology that guided their use in more modern times. The biological properties of the component tissues and their extracts of animal by-products have provided the scientific basis for the development of synthetic substitutes. Many of the animal by-products are still indispensable as treatment regimes and research assets for the development of new and improved applications. A significant market has accompanied the biotechnical age in research work related to cell media, bioactive peptides, immunochemicals, molecular biology, tissue culture media, and reagents.
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