Fig. 2 Summary of redesigning animal foods.
years, and irradiation of animal-derived foods, which is increasing in popularity and acceptance.
When genetic modification is considered, preharvest systems would include genetically altering animals or gut microbes to provide specific actions of interest, while postharvest techniques could include modifying food-processing microbes by using genetic engineering to optimize the contents of nutraceuticals in products. Two examples of preharvest genetic modification include either knocked out (deleted) genes or inserted genes. Specific examples of genetic modifications could include knocking out the triacylglycerol synthetase gene (clearly an extreme example) so that the cow would produce skim milk or the genetic addition of lactase to the secretory cells of the mammary gland, which is an experiment that already has been conducted in a mouse, to produce a lactose-decreased or a lactose-free milk.
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