The insemination dose consists of the number of spermatozoa and the total volume of extended semen. Semen processing procedures, viability of spermatozoa, and the insemination technique are the main factors that influence the individual characteristics of insemination doses. Likewise, the insemination regimen is determined by the length of estrus, the timing of ovulation during estrus, and the viability of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract. Characteristics of insemination doses and regimens most commonly used in cattle, sheep, goats, horses, chickens, turkeys, and swine are summarized in Table 2.
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