Introduction

High-energy feeds are concentrate feeds that contain maximums of 20% crude fiber and 20% crude protein, and a minimum of 2646 kcal of digestible energy (DE) per kg of air-dry diet (or a minimum of 60% total digestible nutrients), plus a high amount of one or more nutrients that will enhance nutritional adequacy.

Cereal grains are the primary high-energy ingredients fed to livestock worldwide because of their extensive production, high digestible carbohydrate content, and economical cost. Cereal grains are the major ingredients in poultry and swine diets and concentrate feeds fed to ruminants. High-concentrate diets based on cereal grains also supply adequate amounts of essential fatty acids because cereal grains contain 2% to 4% oil. However, byproduct fat sources are commonly added to cereal grain-based diets to increase energy density. Alternative high-energy feedstuffs may consist of cull or surplus sugar beets and potatoes in temperate regions; and bananas, cane sugar molasses, cassava (tapioca), and sweet potatoes in tropical and subtropical regions. The minerals supplied by high-energy feedstuffs should be accounted for in diet formulation. The vitamin content (or vitamin precursor content) is usually considered in ruminant diet formulation, whereas it is usually ignored in nonruminant diet formulation.

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