In comparison to the techniques successfully employed for nuclear gene transgenesis in livestock over the past 20 years, the lack of comparable recombination in mitochon-drial DNA (mtDNA) has, until recently, prevented its direct in vivo manipulation. The coordinated expression of single-copy nuclear gene products, together with the polyploid mtDNA gene products, is required for normal mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory chain function. It is of great current interest to seek improved technologies for manipulating the mitochondrial genome, so that interactions of nuclear and mtDNA genotypes can be studied in experimental systems.
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