Introduction

Consensus has it that the state of being of dairy cattle, among agricultural animal species, is overall the highest. This has been viewed as being due to the closeness between keeper and animal, resulting simply from the frequent close contacts at daily milking times. In contemporary dairy cattle husbandry systems, however, that contact differs quantitatively and qualitatively from what it formerly was, and these differences have been construed as having compromised the wellness of dairy cattle.

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