Introduction

Mineral deficiencies are reported for almost all regions of the world,[1'2] with mineral supplementation required for successful livestock and poultry production. The first step in feeding farm animals supplemental minerals is to have knowledge of both element requirements (e.g., National Research Council series Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals, National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC) and tolerance[3] for the various classes of animals and poultry. In the United States, rules and regulations governing the registration, distribution, and ingredients of supplements, including mineral premixes, are published by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO), Inc. (Consumer Protection Division, Charleston, WV). All mineral supplements sold must abide by controls set forth by this commission. As an example, ammonium sulfate must contain not less than certain levels of N and S, but also not more than 75 ppm As and 30 ppm Pb.

Other information of use to mineral manufacturers are the Feed Industry Redbook (Communications Marketing, Inc., Edina, MN) and the Feedstuffs Yearbook.[4] These publications provide formulation, purchasing, distribution, and nutritional information of ingredients and serve as directories of suppliers of ingredients.

The National Feed Ingredients Association (NFIA, West Des Moines, IA) has published a minerals ingredient handbook. For commonly used mineral salts, there is information on the AAFCO definition, general description (e.g., bulk density, water solubility, appearance, typical sieve analysis, analysis of primary element, and other elements), handling and storage recommendations, precautions, and analyses procedures. Most mineral sources recommend storing mineral salts in a cool, dry, and ventilated area.

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