Management needs for layers have been constantly changing as a result of the genetic selection for improved productivity practiced by the egg-type poultry breeding companies. Productivity changes are well documented in strain performance reports from layer random sample tests and management reports. Changing physiological needs for optimal reproduction have been met by improvements in health care, housing, and nutrition. Layer reproductive management can be controlled during the course of physiological development through the use of pullet and layer phase lighting programs, body weight-management programs, and environmental temperature control.
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