Controlling estrous cycles (day 0=onset of estrus) by synchronizing estrus facilitates artificial insemination (AI) or natural service of a high percentage of breeding age or postpartum females. As a result, it also facilitates promulgation of superior genetics of progeny-tested sires of economic worth for continued livestock improvement. Some methods are also used to delay or prevent estrus in females, induce puberty, or initiate estrous cycles in postpartum or seasonally anestrous females.
Various hormones have been tested to control the estrous cycle of domestic farm species. These include compounds that: 1) lyse the corpus luteum (CL); 2) artificially elongate the luteal phase via feeding, drenching, or injecting a progestin, or administering intravaginal sponges or inserts, or body implants that deliver a progestin; 3) induce ovulation using gonadotropins; or 4) induce ovulation using combinations of several hormones.
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