The water-soluble vitamins folic acid, pantothenic acid, and B12 are involved in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Most of these processes are involved in methyl group transfers, the formation of single carbon units, and decarboxylation and transamination pathways. Like most of the B vitamins, the initial deficiency symptoms of each include decreased growth rate and poor general health status. The B vitamins are found in plant and animal tissues in varying concentrations and availabilities. While dietary recommendations vary considerably from species to species, dietary supplementation of most of the B vitamins is recommended for monogastric species. Microorganisms in the rumen of ruminant animals produce enough B vitamins to meet the animal's needs under most production situations.
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