Limitations of Feeds from GM Crops

In most countries, products from transgenic plants are considered acceptable when they are substantially equivalent to products not derived by GM. However, consumer concerns have precipitated governmental restrictions in certain countries; these hamper the international trade of GM crops. Because GM food crops have been grown on more than 230 million cumulative hectares worldwide over the past seven years[1] without any verified instances of adverse nutritional effects on livestock or humans, most researchers have become convinced that products from transgenic plants are safe.[7]

Safety of transgenic crops entails two scientific questions. First, can an introduced gene be transferred to

www.dekker.com.)"/>
Fig. 1 Percentage of land area in the United States devoted to transgenic crops. (From Ref. 2.) (View this art in color at www.dekker.com.)

Table 1 Current and pending transgenic agricultural products

Characteristic

Target crop

Company

Trade name or biological function

Herbicide tolerance Glufosinate tolerance

Glyphosate tolerance

Insect resistance

Corn borer resistance

Rootworm protection

Borer and rootworm resistant Bollworm protection Broad spectrum pest resistance Broad spectrum pest resistance Codling moth protection Insect protection Fungi resistant

Black sigatoka fungus resistance Fusarium blight (scab) resistant Fungi resistant Ringspot virus resistant Sclerotina resistant Altered composition Amylase expression Greater digestibility Higher energy density Improved protein functionality Increased phosphorus digestion Lauric acid rich seed Lengthened shelf life No trans fatty acids No trans fatty acids Oleic acid rich nuts Altered growth or appearance Delayed ripening, longer lasting

Drought resistance Mauve (violet) color

Canola, cottona Rice,a soybeansa Corn

Alfalfa,a canola, corn, cotton, lettucea soybeans, sugar beetsa Turf grass,a wheat Corna

Strawberriesa

Corn Corn Corn Corn Corn

Sweet corn Corn

Corna Corna

Cotton

Cottona

Cottona

Applesa

Soybeansa

Bananasa

Wheata

Strawberriesa

Papaya

Canolaa

Corna Corna Corna

Soybeansa

Feedsa

Rapeseed

Bananasa

Canola

Sunflowers

Peanuts

Raspberriesa Tomatoesa

Corna

Carnations

Bayer Libertylink products

Aventis Libertylink corn

Monsanto Roundup ready products

Syngenta Glyphosate tolerant DNA Plant Tech

Bayer Libertylink corn

Dow/Pioneer Herculex I

Monsanto Yieldgard

Mycogen Natureguard

Syngenta Knockout, yieldgard

Syngenta Attribute

Monsanto Maxgard

Dow/Pioneer Rootworm resistant

Syngenta Insect resistant corn

Monsanto Bollgard

Dow Insect protected cotton

Syngenta Vegetative insecticidal protein

Monsanto Bt insect protected

Monsanto Insect protected soybeans

DNA Plant Tech Disease resistant bananas

Syngenta Fusarium resistant wheat DNA Plant Tech

Cornell Rainbow, sunup

DuPont Disease resistant canola

Syngenta Amylase for enhanced ethanol

DuPont Increased energy availability

Dow Nutritionally enhanced

DuPont Improved protein function

Syngenta Phytase for animal feed

Calgene Laurical

Syngenta Long shelf life bananas

Dow Natreon naturally stable

Mycogen Naturally stable

Mycogen Flavor runner naturally stable

Agritrope Long shelf life fruits and vegetables

DuPont Improved drought response

Florigene Moondust

"Transgenic crops expected to be produced commercially by 2008. (From Ref. 4.)

animals and alter genetics or productivity? Second, will protein synthesized by the transferred gene cause adverse reactions (e.g., allergies, toxicoses)?

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