Many different methods have been used to determine mineral bioavailability because of its broad definition or interpretation.1-1,2-1 Traditionally, a large portion of data has been derived from whole-body responses including absorption, retention, growth, reproduction, and prevention of deficiency disease. There are some data based on tissue responses such as bone strength and blood hormone levels. Recently, more data have been generated from impacts of minerals on gene expression, protein synthesis, enzyme activity, and immune function.[3,4] Radioactive or stable isotopes and in vitro cell culture models have become increasingly used in mineral bioavailability assays.
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