Minor Constituents In Goat Milk

The lactoferrin, transferrin, and prolactin contents of goat milk are comparable to those of cow milk. Human milk contains more than 2 mg lactoferrin/ml, which is 10 100fold higher than in goat milk. The high level of folate-binding protein in goat milk lowers the available level of folic acid in this milk (Table 2).

The amount of immunoglobulin IgG type in both goat and cow milk is much higher than in human milk, whereas human milk contains greater levels of IgA and IgM immunoglobulins than either goat or cow milk (Table 2).

3.6

4.0

3.3

1.2

4.6

6.9

0.7

0.2

12.3

12.3

69

68

122

33

119

43

12

4

152

55

58

15

100

60

0.08

0.20

0.06

0.06

0.02

0.07

0.53

0.38

0.021

0.007

0.96

1.52

126 2.0 0.045 0.16 0.08 0.32 0.042 5.0 2.0 0.357 0.94

Table 2 Caseins, minor proteins, and enzyme contents of goat milk compared with those of cow and human milks

Proteins Goat Cow Human

Proteins Goat Cow Human

Table 2 Caseins, minor proteins, and enzyme contents of goat milk compared with those of cow and human milks

Protein (%)

3.5

3.3

1.2

Total casein (g/100 ml)

2.11

2.70

0.40

as1 (% of total casein)

5.6

38.0

as2 (% of total casein)

19.2

12.0

ß (% of total casein)

54.8

36.0

60 70

k (% of total casein)

20.4

14.0

7.0

Whey protein (%) (albumin and globulin)

0.6

0.6

0.7

Nonprotein N (%)

0.4

0.2

0.5

Lactoferrin (mg/ml)

20 200

20 200

<2,000

Transferrin (mg/ml)

20 200

20 200

50<

Prolactin (mg/ml)

44

50

40 160

Folate binding protein (mg/ml)

12

8

Immunoglobulin

IgA (milk: mg/ml)

30 80

140

1,000

IgA (colostrum: mg/ml)

0.9 2.4

3.9

17.35

IgM (milk: mg/ml)

10 40

50

100

IgM (colostrum: mg/ml)

1.6 5.2

4.2

1.59

IgG (milk: mg/ml)

100 400

590

40

IgG (colostrum: mg/ml)

50 60

47.6

0.43

Lysozyme (mg/100 ml)

25

10 35

4 40

Ribonuclease (mg/100 ml)

425

1,000 2,000

10 20

Xanthine oxidase (ml O2/h/ml)

19 113

120

Concentrations of lysozyme, ribonuclease, and xanthine oxidase in goat, cow, and human milks are highly variable among and within species (Table 2). Xanthine oxidase activity of goat milk is less than 10% of that of cow milk.[5] Goat milk contains less lipase and alkaline phosphatase than cow milk.[3,5]

ucts in human nutrition and well-being can never be underestimated. Goat milk products provide essential nutrients in human diet, as well as income sources for the survival of mankind in ecosystems of many parts of the world. The contribution of dairy goat products is also greatly valued by those who have cow milk allergy and other nutritional diseases.

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