Monitoring

Serology testing on a routine basis is used to determine the effectiveness of vaccinations at the point-of-lay, to determine exposure for diseases not included in the vaccination program (avian influenza or Mg in an Mg-negative unit), and to follow changes in titers during lay for such diseases as Mg in a positive unit, Newcastle disease (ND), and infectious bronchitis (IB).

Evaluation of the pox vaccination process is performed seven days after pox vaccination by checking for the ''take'' at the site of pox vaccine inoculation of at least 100 birds per vaccinator. Visually monitoring inactivated vaccines with added dye at the site of injection is also a

Table 1 Example pullet vaccination program

Age (days)

Disease

Vaccine

Route

O

MDa

HVT Rispens

SQb

18

ND IBc

B1 Mass Conn Ark

VCSd

IBDe

Intermediate

VCS

28

IBD

Intermediate

VCS

35

ND IB

B1 Mass Conn Ark

VCS

49

AE Poxf

Calnek AE Fowl and Pigeon pox

WWg

ILTh

ceo'

EDj

63

ND IB

LaSota Mass Connaught Mass Holland

CSk

70

MG1

F strain

CS

91

ND IB Sem

Inactivated

Inject IMn or SQ

ILT

CEO

ED

aMD Marek's disease. bSQ Subcutaneous.

cND IB Newcastle Infectious bronchitis.

dVCS Very coarse spray, 100 micron.

eIBD Infectious bursal disease.

fAE Pox Avian encephalomyelitis Fowl pox.

gWW Wing web application.

hILT Infectious laryngotracheitis.

'CEO Chick embryo origin.

JED Eyedrop application.

kCS Coarse spray, 50 micron.

lMG Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

mND IB SE Newcastle Infectious bronchitis Salmonella enteritidis. nIM Intramuscularly.

aMD Marek's disease. bSQ Subcutaneous.

cND IB Newcastle Infectious bronchitis.

dVCS Very coarse spray, 100 micron.

eIBD Infectious bursal disease.

fAE Pox Avian encephalomyelitis Fowl pox.

gWW Wing web application.

hILT Infectious laryngotracheitis.

'CEO Chick embryo origin.

JED Eyedrop application.

kCS Coarse spray, 50 micron.

lMG Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

mND IB SE Newcastle Infectious bronchitis Salmonella enteritidis. nIM Intramuscularly.

good means of monitoring the administration of these vaccines. As with serology, the vaccine supplier can be of great help in setting up these types of monitoring programs.

Routine necropsy of fresh dead birds is an overlooked method of monitoring layer health. Many astute producers have trained flock supervisors or use local diagnostic lab veterinarians to perform necropsies on a sampling of fresh dead birds from each flock once a month. Another valuable method is listening for respiratory noise in flocks after the lights have gone off for the night.

Sampling manure for detection of Se infection of layers is essential in order to know flock and house status. Typically, a plan for sampling chick boxes at delivery and manure samples at approximately 12 weeks of age, 30 weeks, 45 weeks, and post-molt is performed, checking the samples for Se.[4] This information is then used to plan for the vaccination of pullets, and for cleaning and disinfection (C&D) programs.

growth, feathering, egg production, shell quality, egg size, immune response, etc. A deficiency of phosphorus at any stage of life or excess calcium prior to sexual maturity leads directly to urolithiasis/visceral gout caused by high urine pH. A deficiency of calcium during lay leads directly to mortality caused by calcium depletion. Poor protein nutrition over time will lead to layers with inadequate feather cover at the end of lay, resulting in nervousness and excessive mortality resulting from peckout/prolapse and bacterial infections.

The nutritionist should be the part of the management team who reviews flock results routinely and is kept abreast of abnormalities involving feathering, shell quality, bone strength, and mortality due to peckouts and gout.

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