Germplasm banking has its greatest value as part of an integrated strategy for maintaining the availability of the genetics of today for the benefit of tomorrow. Thus, there is a need to develop a planned genetic management of the total resources including the in situ resources, the ex situ resources (zoos, wildlife parks, botanic gardens), and the frozen resources.1-4-1 Because they are expected to be available and utilized over a period of many years, the frozen resources need to be updated and replaced as use dictates. For long-term success, there are a number of considerations to be taken into account: disease control, genetic management, curatorship and record keeping, ownership, and security. Too often, enthusiasm to develop such resources has not addressed these issues, and the collection has soon become unusable.
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