Dried liver meal consists mostly of dried, condemned livers. Hydrolyzed hair or leather meal is produced by cooking the hair or leather under pressure for a long period to hydrolyze the protein. These meals can be used by ruminant species. Condensed or dried buttermilk, dried whole milk, and other milk products may be available, but they are usually too expensive for use as animal feed. Fish protein concentrate, which has higher protein and lower ash content than fish meals, can be produced by extracting the oil and screening or settling out the bones. Fish silage can be made from minced whole fish and/or fish offal by the combined action of the body enzymes and added acids. Shells of hatched eggs, infertile and unhatched eggs, culled chicks, and others can be used to make poultry hatchery by-product meal. Other animal by-product feeds can be used for food animal production, and readers are referred to Refs. 2, 8, and 11 and other publications for this information.
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