Aberrant behavior can be provoked by a range of environmental factors such as limited space, high animal density, competition for feeding space, reduced flight or escape opportunities, slippery floors, and by neuronal diseases (e.g., transmissible spongiform encephalopathy), metabolic diseases (e.g., milk fever), specific nutrient deficiencies, transportation, and traumatic experiences. 6. Because stress-induced behaviors generally serve a purpose such as to reduce negative effects of stress, they are not generally considered aberrant behaviors. Some aberrant behaviors appear more often among confined farm 7 animals (they may not exist at all in natural conditions), and some are an excessive expression of a natural behavior, but the frequency, intensity, context, and con- g sequences make the behavior aberrant.
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