Providing Supplemental Minerals For Livestock

For many classes of livestock including swine, poultry, feedlot cattle, and dairy cows, mineral supplements are incorporated into concentrate diets, which generally ensures that animals receive required minerals. However,

Table 1 Percentage of mineral element and relative bioavailabilitya

Element

Source compound

Element in compound (%)

Bioavailability Comparative values (%)b

Calcium

Calcium carbonate

40.0

Intermediate

100

Calcium chloride

36.0

High

125

Defluorinated rock phosphate

29.2 (19.9 35.7)

Intermediate

105

Dicalcium phosphate

23.2

High

110

Dolomitic limestone

22.3

Intermediate

Ground limestone

38.5

Intermediate

90

Monocalcium phosphate

16.2

High

130

Steamed bonemeal

29.0 (23 37)

High

135

Soft phosphate

18.0

Low

Tricalcium phosphate

31.0 34.0

Chlorine

Sodium chloride

60.0

High

100

Ammonium chloride

65.0

High

95

Potassium chloride

47.0

High

95

Cobalt

Cobalt sulfate

21.0

High

100

Cobalt carbonate

46.0 55.0

High

98

Cobalt chloride

24.7

High

Cobalt glucoheptonate

4.0

Intermediate

85

Cobaltous oxide

70.0

Low

50

Copper

Cupric sulfate

25.0

High

100

Copper lysine

10.0

High

100

Copper proteinate

8.5 10.0

High

105

Cupric carbonate

53.0

High

120c

Cupric chloride

37.2

High

115

Cupric chloride tribasic

56.0

High

110

Cupric nitrate

33.9

Intermediate

Cupric oxide

80.0

Low

30d

Iodine

Potassium iodide, stabilized

69.0

High

100

Calcium iodate

63.5

High

95

Cuprous iodide

66.6

High

Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide

80.0

Highe

105

Pentacalcium orthoperiodate

28.0

High

100

Iron

Ferrous sulfate

20.0 30.0

High

100

Ferrous carbonate

36.0 42.0

Lowd 10 85f

Iron methionine

15.0

High

90

Iron oxide

46.0 60.0

Unavailable

5

Magnesium

Magnesium sulfate

9.8 17.0

High

100

Magnesite

29.0

Low

2

Magnesium carbonate

21.0 28.0

High

Magnesium chloride

12.0

High

100

Magnesium hydroxide

30.0 40.0

Intermediate

60

Magnesium oxide

54.0 60.0

Intermediate

75

Potassium and magnesium sulfate

11.0

High

Manganese

Manganous sulfate

27.0

High

100

Manganese carbonate

43.0

Low

30

Manganese dioxide

36.0

Low

35

Manganese methionine

15.0

High

125

Manganese proteinate

10.0

High

110

Manganous oxide

52.0 62.0

Intermediate

(Continued)

Table 1 Percentage of mineral element and relative bioavailabilitya (Continued)

Element Source compound Element in compound (%) Bioavailability Comparative values (%)b

Element Source compound Element in compound (%) Bioavailability Comparative values (%)b

Table 1 Percentage of mineral element and relative bioavailabilitya (Continued)

Phosphorus

Sodium phosphate

21.0

25.0

High

100

Calcium phosphate dibasic

18.5

High

95

Calcium phosphate monobasic

18.6

21.0

High

100

Defluorinated rock phosphate

13.3

(8.7 21.0)

High

90

Phosphoric acid

23.0

25.0

High

100

Potassium phosphate

22.8

100

Soft phosphate

9.0

Low

40

Steamed bonemeal

12.6

(8 18)

High

95

Tricalcium phosphate

18.0

Potassium

Potassium chloride

50.0

High

Potassium sulfate

41.0

High

Potassium and magnesium sulfate

18.0

High

Selenium

Sodium selenite

45.6

High

100

Sodium selenate

40.0

High

100

Selenium yeast

0.1

0.2

High

120

Sodium

Sodium chloride

40.0

High

100

Sodium bicarbonate

27.0

High

95

Sulfur

Sodium sulfate

10.0

High

100

Ammonium sulfate

24.0

High

95

Anhydrous sodium sulfate

22.0

Calcium sulfate (gypsum)

12.0

20.1

High

100

DL Methionine

20.0

High

100

Potassium sulfate

18.0

High

Potassium and magnesium sulfate

22.0

High

Sulfur, flowers of

96.0

Low

55

Zinc

Zinc sulfate

22.0

36.0

High

100

Zinc basic chloride

55.0

High

105

Zinc carbonate

52.0

Intermediate

85

Zine chloride

48.0

High

105

Zinc methionine

4.0

10.0

High

105

Zinc oxide

46.0

73.0

High

95g

Zinc proteinate

9.0

14.0

High

130

aFrom Ellis et al. (1988). Most recent updates provided by Ref. 5 and Pamela H. Miles (personal communications, 2002).

Bioavailability percentages computed by Pamela H. Miles (personal communications, 2002). Percentages are not absolute, but rather relative comparisons using the source designated as 100 as the standard. Comparative values are estimated for both monogastric and ruminant species, unless otherwise stated.

cValue is for ruminant, 65% for chick. dValue is for ruminant, 0% for chick.

eSome liberation of free iodine when mixed with trace minerals.

fSome samples are fairly high in availability, but not as available as ferrous sulfate.

gValue is for ruminant, 55% for chick.

aFrom Ellis et al. (1988). Most recent updates provided by Ref. 5 and Pamela H. Miles (personal communications, 2002).

Bioavailability percentages computed by Pamela H. Miles (personal communications, 2002). Percentages are not absolute, but rather relative comparisons using the source designated as 100 as the standard. Comparative values are estimated for both monogastric and ruminant species, unless otherwise stated.

cValue is for ruminant, 65% for chick. dValue is for ruminant, 0% for chick.

eSome liberation of free iodine when mixed with trace minerals.

fSome samples are fairly high in availability, but not as available as ferrous sulfate.

gValue is for ruminant, 55% for chick.

for grazing livestock to which concentrate feeds cannot be fed economically, it is necessary to rely on both indirect and direct methods of providing minerals. Animals that do not receive concentrates are less likely to receive an adequate mineral supply; free-choice mineral mixtures provided to grazing livestock are much less palatable than are concentrates and are often consumed irregularly. The consumption of mineral mixtures free-choice is highly variable and has no relationship to mineral require ments.[7] Factors that affect the consumption of mineral mixtures have been listed[1,2] and are as follows:

• Soil fertility and forage type consumed.

• Available energy-protein supplements.

• Individual requirements.

• Salt content in drinking water.

• Palatability of mineral mixture.

Table 2 Characteristics of a good, complete, free choice cattle mineral supplement

An acceptable complete cattle mineral supplement should be as follows:

1. Final mixture containing a minimum of 6 8% total P. In areas where forages are consistently lower than 0.20% P, mineral supplements in the 8 10% phosphorus range are preferred.

2. Calcium phosphorus ratio, not substantially over 2:1.

3. Provide a significant proportion (i.e., about 50%) of the trace mineral requirements for Co, Cu, I, Mn, and Zn.a In known trace mineral deficient regions, 100% of specific trace minerals should be provided.

4. Composed of high quality mineral salts that provide the best biologically available forms of each mineral element and avoidance of minimal inclusion of mineral salts containing toxic elements. As an example, phosphates containing high F should be either avoided or formulated so that breeding cattle would receive no more than 30 50 ppm F in the total diet. Fertilizer or untreated phosphates could be used to only a limited extent for feedlot cattle.

5. Formulated to be sufficiently palatable to allow close to adequate consumption in relation to requirements.

6. Backed by a reputable manufacturer with quality control guarantees as to accuracy of mineral supplement label.

7. An acceptable particle size that will allow adequate mixing without smaller size particles settling out.

8. Formulated for the area involved, the level of animal productivity, the environment (temperature, humidity, etc.) in which it will be fed, and is as economical as possible in providing the mineral elements used.

aFor most regions, it would be appropriate to include Se, unless toxicity problems have been observed. Iron should be included in temperate region mixtures, but often both Fe and Mn can be eliminated for acid soil regions. In certain areas where parasitism is a problem, Fe supplementation may be beneficial.

• Availability of fresh mineral supplies.

• Physical form of minerals.

• Exposure time, previous experience, and social interaction.

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