Regulatory Functions Of Amino Acids

Through the production of diversified metabolites, amino acids regulate cell metabolism and play vital roles in animal homeostasis (Table 2). For example, arginine stimulates the secretion of insulin, growth hormone, pro lactin, glucagon, and placental lactogen, thereby modulating protein, lipid, and glucose metabolism. Second, arginine activates N-carbamoylglutamate synthase, which uses glutamate as a substrate. Thus, arginine and glutamate maintain the urea cycle in an active state. Third, through signaling pathways involving the mammalian target of rapamycin protein kinase, leucine increases protein synthesis and inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Fourth, alanine inhibits pyruvate kinase, thereby regulating gluconeogenesis and glycolysis to ensure net glucose production by hepatocytes during periods of food deprivation. Fifth, glutamate and aspartate mediate the transfer of reducing equivalents across the mitochondrial membrane and thus regulate glycolysis and cellular redox state. Finally, coordination of amino acid metabolism among the liver, skeletal muscle, intestine, and immune cells maximizes glutamine availability for renal ammo-niagenesis and therefore the regulation of acid base balance in acidotic animals.[1]

Supplements For Diabetics

Supplements For Diabetics

All you need is a proper diet of fresh fruits and vegetables and get plenty of exercise and you'll be fine. Ever heard those words from your doctor? If that's all heshe recommends then you're missing out an important ingredient for health that he's not telling you. Fact is that you can adhere to the strictest diet, watch everything you eat and get the exercise of amarathon runner and still come down with diabetic complications. Diet, exercise and standard drug treatments simply aren't enough to help keep your diabetes under control.

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