Relation Between Body Composition And Nutrient Requirements

To achieve maximal growth, the nutritional input must be optimal. The protein content and amino-acid composition must be appropriate to foster muscle and bone growth. Thus, animals selected for increased rates of muscle growth have an increased requirement for dietary protein and amino acids to maintain maximal growth. The energy content must be sufficient to support the desired anabolic processes for muscle and bone growth, and the vitamin and mineral content must be adequate. However, excess energy and even amino-acid intake relative to needs of the animal produce excess fat accretion. For most domesticated species, access to high-quality rations ad libitum results in excess fat accretion. Limiting intake to less than ad libitum can produce essentially the same deposition of muscle, but less deposition of fat.[8,9] For example, pigs fed 100, 92.5 or 85% of ad libitum had daily gains of 833, 802, and 771 g/d, respectively.1-9-1 The protein deposition was 47, 48, and 48% of the total gain, respectively, whereas the fat gain was 25, 22, and 20% of the total gain, respectively. Thus, feeding less than ad libitum can emphasize the maximal production of the desired muscle product and reduce the undesired fat product. Amino-acid, vitamin, and mineral intake must be maintained at optimal concentrations, and the energy-to-protein ratio must also be optimal.

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