Salmonella

This long-known pathogen is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming rod; its only two species are Salmonella enterica, possessing six subspecies, and Salmonella bongori. There are approximately 2600 Salmonella serotypes, of which Salmonella Typhi-murium and Salmonella Enteritidis are the most prevalent in the United States.[2]Salmonella can grow at temperatures of 5.2 46.2°C, pH values of 3.8 9.5, and in water activity > 0.93. The primary reservoir for Salmonella is the gastrointestinal tract of infected animal hosts or carriers, which serve as sources of contamination for foods and the environment. Nontyphoidal Salmonella strains usually cause gastroenteritis after an incubation period of 5 hours to 5 days, resulting in diarrhea, nausea, mild fever, chills, vomiting, and abdominal cramping. Infectious doses of Salmonella (10 10,000 cells) depend on serotype, vehicle of transmission, and on the individual's susceptibility.[1] A variety of food products, including meat, poultry, and dairy products, have been implicated in the transmission of salmonellosis. Salmonella causes millions of illnesses and approximately 30% of the total estimated deaths from foodborne disease in the United Sates annually.[2]

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