Sensory Evaluation

Sensory evaluation predominates in the oral cavity once food is prehended. Evaluation by mammals represents a complex of texture, taste, and aroma that generally arises during mastication.[2] Teeth and a mobile tongue aid prehension by mammals, followed by mastication in a warm mouth lubricated by blends of viscous and serous types of saliva that optimize sensory detection. Ruminants masticate extensively and make considerable demand on serous saliva, particularly from the parotid gland. Fowl have an oral cavity that differs markedly from mammals. Their eyes provide acute depth perception to accurately retrieve particulates, but food size is limited by the absence of teeth, a rigid beak, and fixed oral dimension. Beak manipulations using an inflexible tongue coat the oral mass with viscous saliva to lubricate swallowing. Fowl appear to depend on mechanoreceptors, because few chemoreceptors and a poor environment for solute detection exist for oral evaluation.[3] Land mammals generally have extensive numbers of taste buds for evaluation that are reinforced by the olfaction of volatiles passing from oral to nasal cavity. Mammals generate a bucopharangyl pressure with swallowing that supplements peristalsis in propelling both solids and fluids down the esophagus. However, absence of this seal and pressure in fowl necessitates the use of gravity to consume fluids.

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