Sex Effects

Endocrine functions are often sexually dimorphic, different in males and females. Programming of sexual dimorphism begins with embryonic expression of the sex-determining gene (SRY) in males and secretion of Mullerian-inhibiting hormone (anti-Mullerian hormone, MIH), prevents development of internal reproductive tracts, of females. Among sexually dimorphic characteristics of protein hormone secretion are GH secretory pattern, serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF-II, and serum concentrations of glucose and insulin; concentrations of insulin and glucose are greater in boars than in gilts or barrows. Castrated males, the primary meat animal of many species, differ hormonally from intact males in many aspects.

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