Early efforts to predetermine the sex of lambs used low doses of freshly sorted ram sperm that were surgically deposited directly into the uteri of estrous-synchronized ewes.[8] Pregnancy rates were low, but demonstrated that live lambs could be produced with sex-sorted ram sperm. Recent trials in Australia with sex-sorted ram sperm resulted in pregnancy rates of 25% for ewes inseminated with 4 x 106 X-sorted sperm and 15% for Y-sorted sperm. Control inseminations with 140 x 106 cryopreserved, thawed sperm yielded 54% pregnant ewes.[15] In this trial, thawed sperm were deposited either by standard laproscopic methods or placed into the uterotubal junction with a catheter after minilaparotomy. It is likely that pregnancy rates with sexed sperm could be improved by increasing sperm/dose and precisely controlling the time of insemination relative to ovulation.

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