Shrubs And Trees

Shrubs are defined as any low-growing, woody plant that produces multiple stems. Leguminous trees are included in this category. Leucaena is the most widely used multipurpose tree legume in the tropics.[6] It is used as a high-quality livestock forage, fuelwood, and construction timber, and for soil stabilization and improving soil fertility. The nutritive value of Leucaena is good where it is used, and livestock production is increased over conventional pastures. Rate of adoption has been low-to-moderate due to the high cost of establishment, the high rate of establishment failure due to weed competition and insect predation, the low returns on beef production in

Table 1 Forage quality of selected species of forage shrubs and forbs

Forage constituent

Forage class and species % NDF % CP % IVDMD

Shrubs

Artemisia tridentate (Big sagebrush)a

40.3

8.5

61.3

Atriplex nummularia (Oldman saltbush)b

41.2

20

71.5

C. proliferus (Tagasaste)b

39.9

19.6

64.9

Cytisus maderiensis (Broom)b

38.3

19.3

68.1

Leucaena esculenta paiculata (Leucaena)b

42.1

18

42.4

L. leucocephala (Leucaena)b

40.8

21.6

49.1

Leucaena pulverulenta (Leucaena)b

47.1

16.7

38.9

Teline stenopetala (Leafy broom)

39.9

20.2

Forbs

Astragalus filipes (Threadstalk milkvetch)a

52.5

17.7

54.8

Achillea millefolium (Common yarrow)a

33.0

8.6

80.5

Anthemis arvensis (Corn chamomile)c

27.4

26.4

73

Berteroa incana (L.) (Hoary alyssum)d

42.3

14.4

76.2

Beta maritima (Wild beet)c

29.5

33.9

77

Borago officinalis (Borage)c

26.2

24.4

69

Calendula arvensis (Field marigold)c

19.7

34.1

79

Carduus corymbosus (Thistle)c

30.6

18.3

75

C. intybus (Chicory)c

43.7

11.8

76

Cirsium arvense (L.) (Canada Thistle)d

32.1

18.6

78.1

Crepis accuminata (Western yarrow)a

30.9

8.5

81.8

Crysanthemum coronarium (Crown daisy)c

31.4

50.8

73

Diplotaxis erucoides (White wall rocket)c

14.8

26.9

28.7

Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke)d

29.3

19.3

81.4

Lepidium perfoliatum (Clasping pepperwort)a

51.8

9.9

54.8

Lithospermum ruderale (Western gromwell)a

30.2

10.5

73.5

Notabasis syriaca (Prickly thistle)c

34.2

28.5

72

Polygonum coccineum (Swamp smartweed)d

35.0

21.8

57.6

Rumex crispus L. (Curly dock)d

32.8

17.4

64.4

Silene alba (Mill.) (White campion)d

45.9

15.4

74.7

Sinapsis arvensis (Wild mustard or charlock)c

20.0

27.9

81

Sonchus oleraceus (Common sowthistle)c

27.3

26.6

79

Sonchus arvnesis L. (Perennial sowthistle)d

26.7

21.4

79.2

Taraxacum officinale (Dandelion)d

32.8

13.2

76.7

Urospermum dalechampii (Pennywort)0

27.8

12.6

72

NDF neutral detergent fiber; CP crude protein; IVDMD in vitro dry matter digestibility. a(From Ref. [7].)

bLeaf material only. (From Ref. 6.) cEarly vegetative to mid bloom. (From Ref. 8.) Second harvest, early to mid June. (From Ref. 9.)

NDF neutral detergent fiber; CP crude protein; IVDMD in vitro dry matter digestibility. a(From Ref. [7].)

bLeaf material only. (From Ref. 6.) cEarly vegetative to mid bloom. (From Ref. 8.) Second harvest, early to mid June. (From Ref. 9.)

relation to grain feeding, and the low levels of skills

among graziers. ]

Acacia is another forage shrub that has a significant role in animal production systems. These shrubs have been used historically as maintenance feed during droughts and periods of seasonal feed shortage in arid and semiarid zones. The seed pods of these woody shrubs are highly nutritious and serve as excellent supplement for grazing animals.

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