Sources Of Alternative Energy Feedstuffs

Many of the alternative energy feedstuffs that can be utilized are by-products (or co-products), waste products, and residues from the food and feed processing, food preparation, and food service industries. Example industries include grain milling, brewing and distillation, sugar refining, baking, fruit and vegetable processing, meat, poultry, milk and egg processing, seafood processing, prepared food manufacturing, and retail food outlets. Other alternatives include feedstuffs that are not commonly fed to livestock and poultry but that may be fed during times of low prices or surpluses or during shortages of traditional feedstuffs. Alternative feedstuffs may also include those available in many areas that can be economical substitutes for traditional feedstuffs not available locally. Various residues from crop production are also viable alternatives.

Livestock and poultry provide a practical outlet for many alternative feedstuffs that are not suited for human consumption. Some of these products have been used in livestock and poultry feeding for so long and extensively that they are almost as common as the cereal grains. More than 40 million tons of by-product feedstuffs are used annually in animal feeds in the United States.[1] The list of alternative energy feedstuffs is very long. Only a handful will be mentioned. For the common by-product feedstuffs, the reader is referred to the articles on by-product feeds of plant origin and of animal origin in this encyclopedia. For a more complete listing, the reader is referred to publications by Ensminger et al.[2,3] and the National Research Council (NRC).[4] In addition, the publication Feedstuffs Magazine, in its yearly reference issue, has a long listing, along with estimated nutrient compositions of alternative feedstuffs.[5]

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