The simplest, but most controversial, method of gene transfer involves merely mixing a transgene with spermatozoa and using them to fertilize oocytes, either in vitro or by artificial insemination. The use of sperm-mediated transfer in mice by Dr. Lavitrano was initially discounted as unrepeatable by many investigators. During the past decade, research on this procedure has persisted and many investigators report successful gene transfers by this technique. Unfortunately, only a few studies have provided convincing evidence that the transgene was unaltered before or during the integration process and capable of expressing appropriately in the resulting transgenic animals.
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