A subset of Oral-Nasal-Facial (ONF) behaviors have sometimes been called stereotypies. Stereotypies are repetitive, relatively invariable sequences of nonfunctional behaviors, potentially indicating reduced welfare. Differences among sows in the level of stereotypical behaviors, their biological significance, and causation remain unclear. Pigs within the same housing systems may vary in the average frequency of stereotypies performed, as the propensity to develop stereotypic behavior has been related to age and parity of the sow. Furthermore, stereotypies also appear to be related to individual characteristics of sows and less to housing
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