Fig. 1 Protocols used to synchronize estrus or ovulation in cattle. CIDR=controlled internal drug release (intravaginal insert that releases progesterone); EB= estradiol benzoate; ECP = estradiol cypionate; GnRH = gonadotropin releasing hormone; MGA = melenges trol acetate; PGF2 a=prostaglandin F2 a; PRID=progesterone releasing intravaginal device; TAI=timed artificial insemination. (View this art in color at

PGF2a.[4] One gives a second injection of GnRH to all females at about 48 h after PGF2 a and then inseminates 0 24 h later. If estrus occurs before PGF2 a or the second GnRH injection, one should inseminate the female and discontinue the remaining protocol. To maximize pregnancy rates, inseminate after detected estrus until all remaining females are inseminated between zero and 24 h after the second GnRH injection (given 48 h after PGF2«).

An alternative to the preceding protocol replaces GnRH with estrogen (estradiol benzoate or estradiol cypionate) at

24 h after PGF2 a to induce behavioral estrus and the LH surge before AI, or in the absence of estrus, one TAI at 36 to 48 h after estrogen (see [8] in Fig. 1).

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