Utilization Of Breeds

Significant levels of heterosis are maintained by use of rotational cross breeding systems[5] or by use of

Table 1 Breeds grouped into biological types for seven criteriaa

Growth rate and

Lean-to-fat

Marbling

Age at

Milk

Tropical

Breed group

mature size

ratio

(Intramuscular fat)

Tenderness

puberty

production

adaptation

Jersey

X

X

XXXX

XXX

X

XXXXX

XX

Longhorn

X

XXX

XX

XX

XXX

XX

XX

Wagyu

X

XXX

XXXX

XXX

XX

XX

XX

Angus

XXXX

XX

XXXX

XXX

XX

XXX

X

Red angus

XXXX

XX

XXXX

XXX

XX

XXX

X

Hereford

XXXX

XX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XX

X

Red poll

XX

XX

XXX

XXX

XX

XXXX

X

Devon

XX

XX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XX

X

Shorthorn

XXXX

XX

XXXX

XXX

XX

XXX

X

Galloway

XX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XX

X

South devon

XXX

XXX

XXXX

XXX

XX

XXX

X

Tarentaise

XXX

XXX

XX

XX

XX

XXX

X

Pinzgauer

XXXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XX

XXX

X

Braunvieh

XXX

XXXX

XXX

XX

XX

XXXX

XX

Gelbvieh

XXXX

XXXX

X

XX

XX

XXXX

X

Holstein

XXXXX

XXXX

XXX

XX

XX

XXXXXX

X

Simmental

XXXXX

XXXX

XX

XX

XXX

XXXX

X

Maine anjou

XXXXX

XXXX

XX

XX

XXX

XXX

X

Salers

XXXX

XXXX

XX

XX

XXX

XXX

X

Norwegian red

XXXX

XXXX

XXX

XX

XX

XXXX

X

Swed. red

XXXX

XXXX

XXX

XX

XX

XXXX

X

and white

Friesian

XXXX

XXXX

XXX

XX

XX

XXXX

X

Piedmontese

XX

XXXXXX

X

XXX

XX

XX

XX

Belgian blue

XXX

XXXXXX

X

XXX

XX

XX

X

Limousin

XXX

XXXXX

X

XX

XXXX

X

X

Charolais

XXXXX

XXXXX

XX

XX

XXXX

XX

X

Chianina

XXXXX

XXXXX

XX

XX

XXXX

X

XX

Tuli

XX

XXX

XXX

XX

XXX

XXX

XXX

Romosinuano

X

XXX

XX

XX

XXX

XXX

XXX

Brangus

XXXX

XXX

XXX

XX

XXX

XXX

XXX

Beefmaster

XXXX

XXX

XX

XX

XXX

XXX

XXX

Bonsmara

XXX

XXX

XX

XX

XXX

XXX

XXX

Brahman

XXXX

XXXX

XX

X

XXXXX

XXXX

XXXX

Nellore

XXXX

XXXX

XX

X

XXXXX

XXX

XXXX

Sahiwal

XX

XXXX

XX

X

XXXX

XXXX

XXXX

Boran

XXX

XXX

XX

X

XXXX

XXX

XXXX

Increasing numbers of Xs indicate relatively higher value.

Increasing numbers of Xs indicate relatively higher value.

composite populations.1-61 Two breed rotations involving the use of two breeds of sire in alternate generations maintain about 68% of F1 heterosis. Adding a third breed to the rotation maintains 86%. Composite populations are established by the inter se mating of animals founded by crossing two or more breeds. Fifty percent of F1 heterosis is retained in composite populations founded by crossing two breeds, and 75% in composite populations founded with equal contributions from four breeds. Uniformity of cattle and consistency of end product can be provided with greater precision using F1

seedstock or composite populations than by rotational crossing of diverse breeds, in which breed composition fluctuates from one generation to the next (e.g., 1/3 to 2/3 in two-breed rotations). For example, with current pricing systems, cattle with 50:50 ratios of Continental to British inheritance have more optimal carcass characteristics experiencing fewer severe discounts for excessive fatness (yield grade 4 or more) or for low levels of marbling (USDA standard quality grades or less) than cattle with lower or higher ratios of Continental to British inheritance.

Use of Bos indicus x Bos taurus crosses is favored in the subtropical regions of the United States. In one experiment, weaning weight per cow exposed was significantly greater for Bos indicus x Bos taurus F1 crosses (Brahman x Hereford, Brahman x Angus, Sahi-wal x Hereford, Sahiwal x Angus) than for Bos taurus x Bos taurus F1 crosses (Hereford x Angus, Angus x Hereford, Pinzgauer x Hereford, Pinzgauer x Angus) in both Florida and Nebraska, but the advantage was 22% greater in Florida than in Nebraska.[7] In the hotter and more humid climates of the Gulf Coast, about 50:50 ratios of Bos indicus to Bos taurus inheritance may be optimal.

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