The vagina is the most posterior portion of the female reproductive system and includes the: 1) anterior vagina extends from the external os cervix to anterior to the urethral opening; and 2) vestibule extends from the urethral opening to the most posterior part of the vulva.
Structures of the vagina include: 1) the endometrium epithelium is low cuboidal in the luteal phase and stratified squamous during the follicular phase of the estrous or menstrual cycle; and 2) the myometrium, with an inner circular layer (smooth muscle; not well developed) and an outer circular layer (smooth muscle; very thin and poorly developed).
The vagina serves: 1) as site of semen deposition in most species; 2) as part of the birth canal; 3) as site of production of pheromones that attract the male for mating; and 4) to maintain bactericidal and bacteriostatic secretions that aid in preventing infection of the reproductive tract.
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