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1. Hard-cooked eggs are made by placing the egg in vertical position in cold water and bringing it to a boil. Then the eggs are simmered for about 10 minutes, rapidly cooled down, and peeled manually or mechanically by machines, which today have a capacity for up to 70,000 eggs/hour (Fig. 1). Products are sold with or without peel in liquid-

containing packages in dry plastic that is either flexible or rigid. These packages contain as few as 2 eggs up to 5 gallon drums for institutional use.

2. Egg salads is chopped hard-cooked eggs mixed with mayonnaise and chives (many variations), sold in retail as is or in sandwiches as well as in mass feeding outlets and restaurants.

3. Sliced eggs are round hard-cooked egg slices as well as quartered or smaller chunks, used mainly for garnishing salads.

4. Egg log is commercially produced as a 10-inch-long hard-cooked geometrical egg cylinder. It is used mainly for garnishing with uniform slices with no waste.

5. Deviled eggs are hard-cooked eggs sliced into two longitudinal halves. The yolks are taken out, mashed, and mixed with mayonnaise and spices, returned back to the albumen cavity, and spread with paprika. Popular in parties, catering, and as bar snacks (many variations).

6. Folded omelets are the most popular egg dish in the United States. They are available in retail, catering, and restaurants, mostly in plain, cheese, and Western or Denver omelets (ham, onion, and cheese). However, hundreds of versions are known. Omelets are made from liquid eggs and water mix, which coagulates flat in a pan. A mixture of desired ingredients (meat, variety, mushroom, seafood, and various vegetables) is placed in the center, lightly cooked, and the coagulated egg is then folded.

7. Flat omelets are popular in Europe where the filling mix is embedded in the coagulated egg. Fritata is the Italian version (ham, onion, and Parmesan cheese), and tortilla (potato base) is the Spanish version.

8. Scrambled eggs originated in England although the French dispute it. They are made from well-beaten eggs and milk (7:3 ratio), salt, and pepper. The French variant uses cream and butter. Many variations exist using different ingredient combinations such as cheeses, mushrooms, ham, shrimp, and a variety of vegetables. The mix is fried gently in a heavy pan. They are commercially available in retail, catering, and restaurants (Fig. 2).

9. French toast is a popular breakfast dish made by soaking various types of breads in seasoned liquid

Fig. 1 Hard cooked egg products. (Photo courtesy of Papeti Corp., now part of Michael Foods.)

egg mixture and frying in a pan. They are commercially available in ready-to-eat frozen form and distributed nationally in the United States (Fig. 3). 10. Batters are composed of beaten eggs, flour, and liquid (water, milk, or a combination of the two). Common additives are salt, pepper, sugar, spices, and baking powder. Batters provide distinguishing organoleptic characteristics to fried or baked foods

Fig. 3 Retail frozen waffles, french toast, and scrambled eggs.

and thousands of formulas exist. Many of these formulas, such as Kentucky Fried Chickens, are kept secret. Many commercial products are available in ready-to-cook, dry, frozen, or chilled versions. Ready-to-eat foods that contain batter are also available in retail, fast food, restaurants, and institution feeding outlets. Many batters are made for specific food products such as pancakes, waffles, and Yorkshire pudding. 11. Pancakes are beaten eggs and flour batter with many other additives. Pancakes are universally popular and many counties or regions have their own version and specific name. They are commercially available in ready-to-cook or ready-to-eat forms. The French have crepes suzette, the Russian Blinis, the Jewish Blintzes, the Chinese egg rolls, the German Pfrankuchen, and the Mexican egg-containing tostado, tortilla, and tacos. These products are completely different from each other and vary from sweet to savory, prepared on a griddle or fried, eaten hot or cold, as breakfast item, dinner, or late-night snack. In the United States pancakes were brought to New England by the settlers and are eaten hot with maple syrup and butter. Many regional versions exist such as San Francisco sourdough pancakes. Waffles are a mixture of beaten eggs, flour, and liquid such as water or milk and flavoring products, which are made by using a very hot waffle iron. The finished products can be toasted or reheated. Many regional variations exist such as the pecan waffle made in the South. Waffles are commercially available as ready-to-eat (frozen) and ready-to-cook in liquid or dry forms (Fig. 3). Bakery products use eggs to tremendously improve organoleptic characteristics of breads, pastries, cookies, and dough products such as noodles, pasta, and dough-filled products such as Russian pirogen, quiches, and others. Eggs provide improved texture

Fig. 2 Frozen scrambled egg breakfasts.
Fig. 4 Frozen breakfast burritos.

due to egg-white coagulation and volume due to the aeration property of egg whites. The yolk provides better water-holding capacity, which results in moist products, and strong emulsifying capabilities due to large quantities of phospholipids and lecithin. Shiny crust color due to Maillard reaction and distinctive flavor are also yolk advantages. As a result, the bakery and pasta industries are the largest buyer of eggs, mostly in the form of industrial whole eggs, egg whites, or egg yolks.

The bakery products can be divided into two major groups:

a. Baked products such as breads, cakes, pies, cookies, large portion of the pastries, and savory filled products, such as pockets. One of the most famous cakes, the pound cake, was originally made from one pound of eggs, one pound of butter, one pound of flour, and one pound of sugar and flavoring.

b. Cooked products such as egg noodles and egg pasta.

c. Many other foods exist such as precooked crusts, which are filled with fresh ingredients such as fresh fruit, pies, and tarts (fresh strawberry pie, fresh blueberry-tart).

14. Egg-filled products include breakfast pockets, pita pockets, egg calzone, egg knishes, egg burritos, egg pizza, that showed up commercially in the 1990s and are widely available (Fig. 4).

15. Baked puddings originated in England and spread to all parts of the British Empire. Many puddings were developed and the first American cookbook (41 pages) includes the recipes for 21 of them.[6] Today, the rice pudding and the bread pudding are highly appreciated and are available as retail catering and restaurant versions.

Fig. 5 Retail mayonnaise products in Australia.

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