Gastrointestinal System

Reflux esophagitis (heartburn):

■ Enlarging uterus displaces the stomach above the esophageal sphincter and causes increased intragastric pressure.

■ Progesterone causes a relative relaxation of the esophageal sphincter.

■ There may also be reflux of bile into the stomach due to pyloric incompetence.

Constipation may occur secondary to progesterone, which relaxes intestinal smooth muscle and slows peristalsis.

Gallbladder

■ Increases in size

■ Empties more slowly

■ Cholestasis, probably due to a hormonal effect since it also occurs in some users of oral contraceptives (OCs) and hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

Liver

Patients with hypertensive heart disease or cardiac disease may develop progressive or sudden deterioration.

Increased distensibility and pressure of veins ^ predisposition to development of varicose veins of legs, vulva, rectum, and pelvis.

Hepatic function increases.

Plasma globulin and fibrinogen concentrations increase.

Synthetic rate of albumin increases ^ total albumin mass increases by

19%, plateauing at 28 weeks.

Velocity of blood flow in hepatic veins decreases.

Serum alkaline phosphatase increases largely due to placental production

Reasons, Remedies And Treatments For Heartburns

Reasons, Remedies And Treatments For Heartburns

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